The People, The History, The Culture
Timeline of Sicily
800 to 400 BC
Iron culture of the Sicani and Siculi tribes flourish. These tribes were Indo-European relatives of the Latins of the Italian mainland who had migrated and gradually absorbed into Greek's superior culture.
The earliest known Greek colony, Naxos, is founded on the island of Sicily, as well as the absorption of eastern Sicily into Magna Graecia (Greater Greece) begins. Syracuse (Siracusa) is also founded by Greek colonists from Corinth.
Zankle-Messene (Messina) founded by Greek colonists from Kyme and Chalcis.
Katane (Catania) founded by Greek colonists from Chalcis.
Motya and Panormos (Palermo) founded by Phoenician colonists from Carthage. Pheonicians establish their own colonies in western Sicily in response to pressure from Greeks.
Gela founded by Greek colonists from Rhodes and Crete.
Selinus (Selinunte) founded by Greek colonists from Megara Hyblaea
Akragas (Agrigento) founded by Greek colonists from Gela.
Carthaginian General Mago successfully campaigns the Sicilian Greeks and establishes the 150 year Magonid dynasty.
Greek philosopher, statesman, poet, teacher and physiologist Empedocles born at Akragas (Agrigento).
Greeks (led by Gelon) route the Carthaginians (led by Hamilcar) at Himera.
The Elymians abandon the unfinished Temple of Segesta.
The Battle of Syracuse occurs: The forces of Syracuse route an Athenian invasion fleet (invited by the Elymians), eclipsing the Greek homeland to become the greatest Greek city in the world.
Carthage attacks and destroys Selinus, and gains revenge for the defeat at Himera by conquering the town and sacrificing 3,000 captured Greeks.
Carthaginian Motya falls to the Greeks led by Dionysius of Syracuse.
Greek mathematician, scientist and inventor Archimedes is born in Syracuse.
The First Punic War. War between Carthage and Syracuse on one hand, Rome on the other begins with a mercenary revolt in the town of Messina.
The Romans conquer Agrigentum (Agrigento).
The Romans conquer Carthaginian Panormos (Palermo) after a long siege.
The First Punic War ends with Rome victorious in the naval battle of Drepanum (Trapani). Rome declares Sicily as its first "province."
Syracuse falls to the Romans, Archimedes is killed.
Rome completely replaces both Carthage and Greece as the ruling power in Sicily
135 - 132 BC
One of two major slave insurrections on Sicliy during Roman rule occurs, inspiring the reform movement of the Gracchi.
102 - 99 BC
The second of Roman Sicily's slave insurrections.
74 - 70 BC
The infamous propraetorship of the Roman politician Gaius Verres
Sicily is occupied by the Roman soldier Pompey the Younger.
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